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Dupuytren’s contracture: symptoms and causes- Physioscare

Dupuytren’s contracture is a condition in which one or more fingers become permentaly bent in flexed position. Dupuytren’s contracture defined as proliferative fibroplasias of the subcutaneous palmar tissue, forming nodules of cords along its ulnar border. This fibroplasias results in finger contractures, thinning of subcutaneous fat, adhesions of skin to the lesion, pitting of skin, and knuckle pads on the dorsum of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints.
The following lesions may be associated with Dupuytren’s, lesions in medial plantar fascia in 5 percent and plastic indurations of penis (3%).

Causes
Exact cause isn't known but could also be due to:
• Heredity.
• Trauma of chronic repetitive in nature.
• Occupational, seen in people employed in rock drilling due to the vibrations of the machine.
• Males—10 times more common in males.
• Whites are affected more than blacks.
• Frequent and severe in epileptics and alcoholics (42%).
• Onset is usually less than 40 years of age.

Pathogenesis

No…

Disorders Of Circulatory System-Physioscare

Hypertension It is the most common disease affecting the heart and blood vessels.A blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg is considered normal. But the increase in blood pressure beyond 140 mmHg (systolic) and 90mmHg (diastolic) is called high blood pressure (hypertension). A diet filled with oily food, is understood to extend cholesterol level, causing thickening of the arteries which results in high blood pressure.Tobacco smoking increases the guts rate, contracts blood vessels and raises blood pressure. High blood pressure can harm heart, brain, kidneys and eyes.
Arteriosclerosis It is the hardening and thickening of the arteries due to the deposition of calcium salts and cholesterol. Such artery loses the property of distension and its walls may rupture, resulting in the formation of clot or thrombosis in the arteria coronaria leading to heart attack and even death.
Angina pectoris Sclerosis of the coronary arteries can cause pain in the chest.This anginal pain usually starts in the centre of t…

Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) -physioscare

Definition
It is a genetic disease characterized by fragility of bones, deafness, blue sclera, laxity of joints and a bent to enhance with age. Osteogensis imperfecta is a disease of the mesodermal tissues with the deposition of normal collagen in bone, skin, sclera and dentine.


Etiology
The etiological factors could be heredity, Mendelian recessive—in prenatal cases, and Mendelian dominant—in postnatal cases.

Pathogenesis and Pathology
Primary defect is failure of osteoblast formation during enchondral ossification; osteoid formation does not take place. Features of bones are:

• Periosteum is thick but the cambium layer is thin.
• Bone is short and thin and the epiphysis is bulbous.
• Cortex is thin and medullary contents are fatty and fibrous.
• Bones break easily but heal well with abundant callus. Fracture is usually subperiosteal and heals by       periosteal bone formation.
• Deformity results from bending and fractures.
• Vertebral bodies are biconcave.
• Scoliosis.
• Skull is th…

Chronic Obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Stages, Causes, Treatment, and More -physioscare

These are chronic disease of lungs in which there is obstruction to the airflow due to airways narrowing COPD are

Chronic bronchitisEmphysemaEtiology SmookingTobacooDustHousehold smokeChronic broncitis
Cough with expectoration for consecutive three months in a year and more than two or more years.
Pathophysiology 
Chronic irritation due to various etiologies                                      ↓ Chronic inflammation of respiration mucosa                                      ↓ Mucosa secretion of resipiration                                      ↓ Hyperplasia  of secretary cells ( Goblets cells)                                      ↓ Normal ciliated cells undergo degenerations                                      ↓ Retention of mucosa in the respiratory tract                                      ↓ Bacterial growth in the retained mucosa                                      ↓                                 Infection                                      ↓                          Mucosa …

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Risk Factors, Symptoms & Treatment-physioscare

Carpal tunnel syndrome was first described by Sir James Paget3 in 1854, but the term was coined by Moerisch.



Anatomy  Bones bound the carpal tunnel on three sides and a ligament on one side. The floor is an osseous arch formed by the carpal bones and the transverse carpal ligament forms the roof.
Contents  Tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus in a common sheath, tendon of flexor pollicis longus in an independent sheath and the median nerve. Synovitis of the above tendons can generate pressure on the nerve.
Causes General Inflammatory—e.g. rheumatoid arthritis. Endocrine—hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, menopause, pregnancy, etc. are some of the important endocrine causes. 
Metabolic cause—gout.
Local  These cause crowding of the space. Malunited Colles’ fracture, ganglion in the carpal region, osteoarthritis of the carpal bones, and wrist contusion, hematoma, etc. are some of the important local causes.
Clinical Stages or Features
Stage I: In this stage, pain is usually…

Osteoarthritis: Symptoms, Treatments, and Causes - Physioscare

Defination

Osteoarthritis (OA), which is also known as osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease. Osteoarthritis is a progressive disorder of the joints which is brought about by slow loss of ligament and bringing about the advancement of hard prods and blisters at the edges of the joints.


Epidemiology

• OA is that the commonest sort of arthritis and therefore the commonest joint disease.
• Characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage.
• Leads to fibrillation, fissures, gross ulceration and finally disapperance of the full thickness of articular cartilage.

Commonly Affected Joints

• Cervical spine
• Lumbar spine
• Hand
• Hip
• Knee
• Foot
• MTP joints



Uncommonly Affected Joints

• Shoulders
• Wrist
• Elbow
• Metacarpophalangeal joint
• TMJ
• SI
• Ankle

Joint protective mechanisms

• Joint Capsule
• Ligaments
• Muscle
• Sensory afferents
• Underlying bone

OA is primarily disease of cartilage. II - 1 is a potent pro - inflammatory cytokine, which capable of inducing chondrocytes an…

Rotator Cuff Tear: Treatment, Symptoms, and Diagnosis -Physioscare

Note: Incidence of rotator cuff tear, less than 70 years— 30 percent; 71-80 years—60 percent; more than 89 years— 70 percent.

About Rotator Cuff Tears  The causes for rotator cuff tears, partial or full, are as follows:  • Age > 40 years.  • Occupations requiring repetitive and excessive overhead movements. • Overhead sports and athletes like throwers, swimmers, tennis players, etc.  • Degenerative etiology is the major cause.  • Dislocation of shoulder joint in 40-60 years of age.  • About 2/3rd cases are seen in male population.
Classification of Rotator Cuff Tears  (According to American Arthroscopic Orthopedics)  • Small tear (< 1 cm)  • Medium tear (1-3 cm)  • Large tears (3-5 cm).
Clinical Tests  Special shoulder tests that are helpful in diagnosing rotational, cuff tears and the impingement syndrome, is the painful arc sign (It is 81% specific). There are innumerable other tests but is outside the scope of this book.
Interesting facts  Do you know the clinical facts leading t…